The heart failure syndrome: only a matter of the heart?
The complexity of heart failure
Gary D. Lopaschuk , PhD
Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, Departments of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
- Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome that is associated with frequent hospitalizations, a poor quality of life, and a high rate of mortality. The prevalence of heart failure is rising in the world, especially heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), which is now the most common type of heart failure.1 It is becoming increasing clear that heart failure is not a single entity, but rather a heterogeneous group of pathologies with multiple phenotypes. Heart failure is also often accompanied by a number of comorbidities, including renal failure, diabetes, obesity, lung disease, liver disease, obesity, chronic inflammatory diseases, and thyroid disease. Heart failure itself can also contribute to the severity of these comorbidities. Unfortunately, the pathophysiological relationship between heart failure and these comorbidities is complex and not fully understood. (…)
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